Alpha

Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on one or multiple values. They are divided into three main categories:

  1. Uniary Operators that takes one values
  2. Binary Operators that takes two values
  3. Ternary operators that takes three values

Arithmetic Operator

+ => Addition
2 + 2
#=> 4
- => Subtraction
5 - 3
#=> 2
* => Multiplication
4 * 4
#=> 16
/ => Division
10 / 5
#=> 2
% => Modulo

Returns the remainder of a division.

11 % 5
#=> 1

Assignment Operator

= => Equal to

The bellow example sets the value of varibale $a to 2.

$a = 2

Array Operator

+ => Union

Merges arrays together using their indexes.

['name' => "Alex"] + ["last_name" => "Doe"]
#=> [
#=>     "name" => "Alex",
#=>     "last_name" => "Doe"
#=> ]

[0 => "Books"] + [0 => "Movies", 1 => "Music"]
#=> [
#=>     "Books",
#=>     "Music"
#=> ]
== => Equality
[1,2,3] == [1,2]
#=> FALSE

[1,2,3] == [1,2,3]
#=> TRUE

[1,2] == [0 => "1", 1 => "2"]
#=> TRUE
=== => Identity
[1,2,3] === [1,2,3]
#=> TRUE

[1,2] === [0 => "1", 1 => "2"]
#=> FALSE
!= => Inequality
[1,2,3] != [1,2]
#=> TRUE

[1,2,3] != [1,2,3]
#=> FALSE

[1,2] != [0 => "1", 1 => "2"]
#=> FALSE
!== => Non-Identity
[1,2,3] !== [1,2,3]
#=> FALSE

[1,2] !== [0 => "1", 1 => "2"]
#=> TRUE

Comparison Operator

== => Equality
1 == 1
#=> TRUE

1 == "1"
#=> TRUE

1 == TRUE
#=> TRUE

1 == "a"
#=> FALSE
=== => Identity
1 === 1
#=> TRUE

1 === "1"
#=> FALSE

1 === TRUE
#=> FALSE

1 === "a"
#=> FALSE
!= => Inequality
1 != 1
#=> FALSE

1 != "1"
#=> FALSE

1 != TRUE
#=> FALSE

1 != "a"
#=> TRUE
!== => Non-Identity
1 !== 1
#=> FALSE

1 !== "1"
#=> TRUE

1 !== TRUE
#=> TRUE

1 !== "a"
#=> TRUE
< => Less Than
2 < 4
#=> TRUE

4 < 2
#=> FALSE

2 < 2
#=> FALSE
<= => Less Than or Equal
2 <= 4
#=> TRUE

4 <= 2
#=> FALSE

2 <= 2
#=> TRUE
> => Greater Than
2 > 4
#=> FALSE

4 > 2
#=> TRUE

2 > 2
#=> FALSE
>= => Greater Than or Equal
2 >= 4
#=> FALSE

4 >= 2
#=> TRUE

2 >= 2
#=> TRUE

Incrementing/Decrementing Operator

++$x => Pre-Increment
$x = 2

# increments $x by one, then returns $x
++$x
#=> 3
$x++ => Post-Increment
$x = 2

# returns $x 
$x++
#=> 2

# then increments $x by one
$x
#=> 3
--$x => Pre-Decrement
$x = 2

# decrements $x by one, then returns $x
--$x
#=> 1
$x-- => Post-Decrement
$x = 2

# returns $x 
$x--
#=> 2

# then increments $x by one
$x
#=> 1

Logical Operator

&& => And
IF(2 > 1 && 3 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE

IF(5 > 1 && 0 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> FALSE
AND => And
IF(2 > 1 AND 3 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE

IF(5 > 1 AND 0 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> FALSE
|| => Or
IF(2 > 1 || 3 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE

IF(5 > 1 || 0 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE
OR => Or
IF(2 > 1 OR 3 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE

IF(5 > 1 OR 0 > 1) {
    RETURN TRUE
} ELSE {
    RETURN FALSE
}
#=> TRUE
! => Not
$x = TRUE

!$x
#=> FALSE

String Operator

. => Concatenation Operator
"Hello " . "world!"
#=> "Hello world!"
.= => Concatenating Assignment Operator
$x = "Hello"
$x .= " world!"
#=> "Hello world!"

?? => Null Coalescing Operator

??" => null coalescing

$x = NULL
$a = $x ?? " x was null"

$a
#=> " x was null"

$y = "Hello there"
$b = $y ?? " y was null"

$b
#=> "Hello there"
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